The trace of Chinese Buddhist culture dates back to the time of Han Wudi, and according to the historical book Wei Shu Shi Lao Zhi, “The Emperor Wuzhong of the Wudi Emperor of the Han Dynasty and the doctor disciple Qin Jing et al.

Since then, Indian Buddhism and Chinese traditional culture have influenced and absorbed each other, developed into one of China's ethnic religions, and become an important part of China's feudal culture.

Since Buddhism occupies an important position in the ideology of feudal society in China, it affects various cultural fields such as philosophy, morality, literature, music, architecture, painting, and art.

This Chinese-style Buddhist culture also plays a pivotal role in the history of Chinese furniture design, especially in the design of Ming-style furniture.

Waist and Sumiyoshi

The corset, originally referred to as the part between the upper and lower jaws of the sacred seat , refers to a waist line that shrinks inwards along the edge of the furniture and has a smaller length than the face edge and the teeth.

Sumiya was originally the name of the Buddhist scriptures. The so-called holy mountain is Sumima. In India, where Buddhism originated, people often use the Xumi Mountain as the base of the Buddha image. Its significance is to refer to the Buddha sitting on the Holy Mountain. Buddhists often regard this kind of behavior as a respect and worship of the Buddha.

In China, Xu Mizuo first appeared on the east wall of the ninth cave of the Yungang Grottoes in Datong, Shanxi Province. There is a seated Buddha image that sits inwardly in the middle of a wide upper and lower seat.

The Yungang Grottoes was built during the Xiaowendi period of the Northern Wei Dynasty (5th century AD). Since Hinduism was introduced to China from the Han Dynasty, the Yungang Grottoes were one of the earliest grottoes in China to fully reflect Buddhist art. In addition, this pedestal can also be seen in Dunhuang Caves, a Buddhist art sanctuary.

White marble whisky seat

The ancient Chinese architecture evolved from primitive cave dwellings to simple houses on the ground. The earliest functions were needed to prevent moisture and natural disasters, and to strengthen the solidity of houses. Buildings were often built on highlands and slopes, if not found. In the natural highlands and slopes, a table was artificially built. In this way, it gradually formed the seat of Taiwan Mingji and Xu Mi.

Later, this style of architecture began to be divided into strict ranks and gradually became a symbol of owner power and social status. "Gaotai Temple, the United States Palace." The building is so, as is the structure of the corresponding furniture.

Beijing Wanshou Temple Xumizu

Nanjing Wuchaomen Park red marble build Xu Mizuo

In Ming-style furniture, the furniture with waistband has horseshoe and its legs are square. This is because the Sumiyoshi of the Tang Dynasty was a four-way square with no side legs vertically, so the furniture with a waist must be used on the square leg.

No waistband furniture originated from large wooden beams in Chinese Buddhist architecture. The pillars of the beams are mostly made of logs, and they fall directly onto the top of the pillars. In order to stabilize the columns, the pillars have “side legs”. The waistless furniture round legs are quite similar to the columns in Chinese Buddhist architecture, and there is generally no horseshoe at the foot.

Pear has three waists

Late Ming Huanghua Pear Moire Head Stool

Carving and lotus

The topics of carving in Chinese Buddhist culture are very extensive. There are roughly scrolls of grass, lotus patterns, moire patterns, and dragon patterns. Among them, the symbol of lotus is the symbol of “the pure land of one side”, which symbolizes “purity and cleanness” and symbolizes “good luck”.

Lotus was reused by ancient literati in its decoration. Ancient literati's understanding of lotus is not from flower appreciation, nor from its economic perspective, but from its growth environment and growth characteristics.

Dragonfly lotus dragon lotus

In the Ming dynasty Li Shizhen wrote in his "Compendium of Materia Medica," "The four seasons are edible and heart-warming," and Lin Xin's "Medical medicine is for feeding and all diseases are available." This refers to medical and economic values; "Lian, Produced in silt instead of muddy, living in the water, not water, roots, stems, flowers, real products are difficult to achieve, clean and economical, the United States and the United States have "," husband and father were dirty, and innocent, quality Soft and wear a firm, ranks down and there is a festival," this understanding is beyond the lotus's economic, medical value, and rose to philosophy of life. It symbolizes that people are in a dirty environment and can be self-respecting.

Lianhe has been found on the bronze and pottery of the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States period as a decorative theme. After the Han Dynasty, it was widely used in folk arts and crafts such as painting, sculpture, porcelain, textile, new-year painting, and paper cutting.

The use of lotus lotus as a decoration in Buddhist art has its own reason. Legendary Buddhist founder Shakyamuni's hometown is rich in Lotus. Buddhism teaches all beings to restrain desires, not to be tempted by material and worldly customs, and to practice spiritually to escape from the secular world's hardships of the sea to the other side of the western bliss.

Shizuo plant cloud cloud flower pattern

The ecological characteristics of Lianhe and its implications are similar to this teaching. Therefore, Sakyamuni not only takes lotus and lotus as a clean and untainted part of Buddhism. The law of the growth of budding budding buds is also in line with the philosophy of life in Buddhism exhibitions.

Therefore, Lotus's image occupies a very important position in Buddhist art. The buddha of the monk was decorated with a lotus flower to decorate the "Lotus Dress" and put the statue of Buddha on the lotus lotus as a rosette. In Tang's "The Collection of Various Scriptures," he said, "The ten Buddhas of all places, together with the muddy mud of the mud, three bodies are All of them sat on top of the lotus, and later they called the temple a lotus.

China has always used Lotus as a relic, and Lotus as a symbol of a gentleman. When decorating Ming-style furniture, lotus flowers are often used to form a realistic three-dimensional image. At the same time, it also truly reflects the ambition of the literati and aspiring to behave like a lotus.

Ming Rosewood Lotus Throne

Beijing Palace Museum Collection

Selection and Hardwood

Rosewood is widely used in Chinese Buddhist supplies. China is the first country in the world to recognize and use rosewood, and rosewood is also the most commonly used material for Ming style furniture. Its wood properties are very stable, and the manufactured objects are not easily deformed and cracked. It is suitable for carving and making objects such as furniture or handicrafts.

After long-term use of rosewood artifacts, sweat and greasy friction infiltration will have a "padding" texture. Since the Ming Dynasty, the imperial courts and magistrates have used red sandalwood to make Buddhist objects, Buddha statues, Buddhist beads, and other things.

Rosewood treasure pattern lotus leaf top waist round Buddha

Huanghua pear is also widely used in Chinese Buddhist supplies. It is the second most commonly used wood for Ming-style furniture. Its texture is hard, its texture is beautiful, its color varies from honey yellow to deep orange, its surface is soft and smooth, and its texture is marble. The fragrance is like roses, so it has been used for making expensive furniture. Among the Buddhist supplies in China, Buddhist rituals such as wooden fish, beads, and the like, which are particularly popular for their use of huanghuali wood.

Thought and nature

China's Buddhist culture has the concept of "the same root of the world, the integration of all things, and the harmony of the legal world." It emphasizes that people and things are not in opposition, but that "the natural living environment and the main body of life are just one and the other depends on each other." In Ming-style furniture, emphasizing on the harmony and unity of man and nature is reflected everywhere, and it is also the best expression of the literati's mentality of understanding body and mind in harmony with nature.

Philosophy and mind

The Buddhist philosophy of China is at the same level as the Indian philosophy. Buddhism has been introduced to China since the Eastern Han Dynasty, and it has been combined with Taoism and Confucianism to compose a chapter of traditional Chinese culture. Just as Buddhism's instruments influenced the transformation and development of traditional furniture with the introduction of Buddhism, it became an important part of Chinese classical furniture.

In Chinese Buddhist philosophy, the most innovative features are the theory of mind and practicality. In fact, the theory of mind and theory of pragmatism has long existed in Indian philosophy. However, the theory of the nature of Buddhism is based on human nature, and it is advocated by the release of karma. All spiritualism is the essence. The essence of practical theory of Chinese Buddhists is ontology. It can be said that the nature of mind and ontology are the two main points of Chinese Buddhist philosophy.

Traditional furniture has been developed into Ming-style furniture since its birth. It has the dual attributes of practicality and art. No matter what material is used, wooden furniture has always been praised. Wooden furniture is used as a home appliance. • "The Willow Pelican" has recorded and affirmed: "For furniture, the front piece of wood should be planted."


Furniture made of wood is suitable for use. In terms of practicality, such as beds, screens, mirrors, tables, chairs, and cabinets, etc. have different uses, but the common aspect of traditional furniture is the ancient traditional wooden furniture. In the construction, no nails are used, and the furniture is completely integrated using the technology.

The crucible is a concavo-convex joining method used on two connected members in a wooden furniture. The protruding part is called 榫 (or 榫); the recessed part is called 卯 (or 榫, 榫). The “榫卯” practice of connecting various components is the main structural method of modeling wooden furniture.

Different methods are used and the scope of application is different, but they have the "joint" effect of a body structure on every piece of furniture. The combination of the different types of surface and surface, the combination of planks, and the combination of three straight materials make the practicality of the furniture fully reflected, even for thousands of years.

Huanghua pear Shouwenlan official hat chair

According to the Buddhist Mahayana classicism, it is the empty philosophical thought of Buddhism. The recessed part is called 卯 (or 榫眼, 榫槽) is empty, the protruding part is called 榫 (or 榫头) is there, empty is not Second, magical one.

The noumenon of the main points of the Buddhist philosophy is nonessential. It is not what some scholars believe is empty. It is not what the materialist thinks there is. It is a vignette of vacuum. From the perspective of Buddhist philosophy, it is practical. The ontological manifestation of the theory, if it is necessary to give a name, is true.

The main body of Ming-style furniture is the magic of vacuum. It is a combination of wood constructions with many different large and small structures of different sizes, resulting in a variety of utensils suitable for human use, and practical functions of Buddhist philosophy. There are deeper connotations and expressions in traditional furniture.

The late Ming Huanghuali sole plate Luohan bed

Likeness is a circle, no beginning or end, continuous forever. For example, mahogany furniture consists of hardwoods such as huanghuali, rosewood, and twigs, plus artificial styling. After the gongs have been made, after the combination, they are then engraved and polished, and the final assembler is called furniture. Born, due to polymerization, constitute a piece of furniture; if you dismantle the cause, it is not furniture.

Everything is born of cause; everything is free of nature, and there is no possibility of autonomous existence. In other words, the formation of all things is a powerful cause, from which it develops a continuous role. Therefore, it was only because of the origin of the theory of the origin of the law. After analyzing the law of the cause, it became the theory of disciplining the law. This involved another point in the philosophy of Buddhism, the theory of mind.

The artistry of Ming-style furniture is to create a combination of physical and mental creations that affect humans through the use of physical materials and tools, the use of certain aesthetic abilities and skills, and the interaction between spiritual and material materials, souls and aesthetic objects. The infinite value attribute of others is the organic combination of man's ideology and production form, and is the source of a spiritual culture.

The creation of genuine artistic furniture must also have infinitely valuable attributes that can influence oneself and others, and it must be practical and physical. There is no material object, no heart, no heart and mind, two things that are forgotten and integrated, this is also the goal of Buddhism philosophy through the pragmatic theory to reach the point of mind - to transfer knowledge into wisdom, to see the truth as the nature .

The Buddhist philosophy of China is a whole. Mind theory, practical theory, and the theory of life all see each other and permeate each other and melt into a large and magnificent philosophical system. The process of fulfilling the theory of life through the theory of mind and practicality is the process of transcending and sublimating from human nature. It is just like the creation of a furniture, the introduction of it, and the circulation of a thousand years.

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